Fractal Antenna: Basics and Application About The Fractal Antenna

In an area, there must be a base station to communicate with each other. The fractal antenna is that specific base town important for multitasking, including receiving and transferring data.

The requirement for an antenna hasn’t started just recently; it was from the beginning of mobile invention. Nevertheless, the previous antennas were long, and their shapes were thick.

Today’s fractal antennas feature a sleek design and fractal shape compared to the previous antennas. 

So, what is a fractal antenna, and how to classify them?

Today’s discussion is all about the details and basics of fractal antennas.

What is Fractal Antenna?

The meaning of fractal is broken or irregularly fragmented.

The fractal antenna refers to an antenna that uses its self-similar design to receive and transmit electromagnetic radiation. Again, the radiation is limited within a specific surface area of volume.

The fractal antennas are used for multiple applications, including Radio-frequency, self-identification, and high-definition television.

However, you can also use fractal antennas in different components of antenna systems, including ground planes, loads, and counterparts.

Basics of Fractal Antenna

The primary purpose of designing fractal antennas is to use multiple frequency brands and different applications. Anyway, fractal antennas have various applications, including image compression and lighting.

But, antennas are widely used for wireless telecommunication worldwide. The reason for using the fractal antenna for wireless telecommunication is its simple and cost-effective fabrication.

However, the designer uses different techniques to design the fractal antennas, and they are:

  • Microstrip line feeding
  • Coaxial probe feeding
  • Aperture coupled feeding
  • Proximate coupled feeding
  • CPW feeding

When/Who invented the Fractal antenna

The antennas are commonly used in television for telecasting videos and audio. The long-period antenna is the widely used TV antenna and was the first antenna invented in 1952.

Later, in 1988 Dr. Cohen first built the idea of the fractal antenna and gradually invented the fractal antenna. Dr. Nathan Cohen, a professor at Boston University, made the self-shaped antenna with his inaugural scientific publications.

Types of Fractal Antenna

There are two classifications of the fractal antenna – deterministic and random fractal antenna.

Deterministic Fractal Antenna

The deterministic fractal antennas are usually generated using computer graphics. The deterministic fractal antennas are generated through multiple scaled-down copies of fractals.

The scaled-down copies are rotated repeatedly and generated using computer graphics.

Random Fractal Antenna

A random fractal antenna is an important parameter affecting the proposed antenna’s radiation or irregular boundary.

Advantages of Fractal Antenna

Using fractal antennas has numerous advantages, including wide bandwidth and good multiband performances in a small area. Perhaps that’s why fractal antennas have been commercially used since 2010. 

Hereby, we’ve discussed the advantages of using fractal antennas in different sectors.

Handles Multiple Bands

A single fractal antenna can take care of both the narrowband and wideband, although there are multiple bands. Hardly there are found antennas like commercial fractal antennas.

Delivers Consistent and Higher Frequencies

Besides taking care of the multiple bands, the fractal antennas provide consistent performances with higher frequencies. Alternatively, the fractal antenna offers an independent frequency rate.

Simple and Robust

Surprisingly, the fractal antennas feature a simple and robust design and can still handle multiple bands. Unlike other antennas, fractal antenna design depends on geometry instead of discrete components.


The fractal antennas are comparatively easy to optimize to get the expected result and values.

Disadvantages of Fractal Antenna

In some ways, fractal antennas also have some disadvantages. To make the best use of a fractal antenna, you must separate the disadvantages of the fractal antenna.

  • Complex design and manufacturing process
  • Gain loss
  • Numerical limitations
  • The benefits begin to diminish after the first few iterations


Do Cell Phones Use Fractal Antennas?

Yes, cell phones use fractal antennas, while it’s also applied in vehicular radar, RFID, and collision avoidance systems. The cellphone processes the transmission of electromagnetic frequencies using the fractal antenna.

The electromagnetic frequencies reduce the total number of antennae that you’ll require.

What Was the Inspiration for The Invention of First Fractal Antenna?

Nathan Cohen, the fractal antenna’s inventor, essentially got the inspiration and idea from a deep study of nature figures.
The well-known term fractal has come from the Latin word “Fractus,” which means broken or fractured. Although Nathan Cohen is the inventor of the fractal antenna, the MANDELBROT created the term “Fractus” about 40 years ago.

What Is Koch Fractal Antenna?

The Koch fractal antennas control the multiband performances and achieve wideband and size miniaturization. It also helps the proposed antenna have octagonal-shaped FR4 to microstrip feed lines.

The Sum Up!

It was never so easy to establish the fractal antenna. The research and effort of multiple scientists and engineers have resulted in today’s fractal antenna.

Hopefully, you’ve understood how the fractal antenna sustains your communication system. Also, the basics and advantages of the fractal antenna should be clear to you.

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